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Contraceptive studies have confused the issues. Over 60 medical conditions increased in takers in the first few years of the world's largest Pill study (Royal College of GPs). Surprisingly, health benefits were claimed (even though one in three women had left the study and many younger never-takers were switched to be Pill-takers to replace losses). Women who ever took the Pill were three times more likely to die before age 30. Violent deaths were still increased for up to 40 years. Ever taking the Pill for 44 months was claimed to prevent premature deaths because of a crucial mistake of not recording recent hormone use in the last 10 years of the study, when 75% of the deaths occurred. Half of menopausal women are likely to have taken Pill hormones again, this time as HRT. Combined HRT has been proved to increase deaths.
One drawback to Brennan’s study is that, unlike Kouri’s, there was evidence of attempted deception. Several people had to be excluded from the non-users’ group because they were either definitely on steroids (they failed the urine test), or probably on steroids (in the researchers’ words, they had “implausibly high muscularity and low body fat despite denial of AAS use”). However, even if a couple of users slipped in, they probably didn’t skew the data too much. The sample size for nonusers was big enough (131 people) that a few bad apples wouldn’t spoil the whole bunch, and the researchers were excluding suspiciously jacked people anyways, so if a few users did slip in, they apparently weren’t swole enough to raise any red flags.