There is no cure at present for alopecia; treatment is currently aimed at helping hair regrowth, but it cannot stop the spread of hair loss. The first line of treatment for adults and teenagers is injection of corticosteroids into the bald spots, with the goal of suppressing the immune reaction causing hair loss. This is not used for children due to the pain involved. Regrowth can be seen in 4 to 8 weeks, and treatment is repeated every 4 to 6 weeks up to a maximum of 6 months. The application of steroid creams are ineffective. There has been some success with hair regrowth with topical applications of minoxidil and anthralin. There are newer agents being tried in clinical studies such as diphenylcyclopropenone and dinitrochlorobenzene, but are not yet commercially available.