In November 1942, the Italian cyclist Fausto Coppi took "seven packets of amphetamine" to beat the world hour record on the track.  In 1960, the Danish rider Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during the 100 km team time trial at the Olympic Games in Rome and died later in hospital. The autopsy showed he had taken amphetamine and another drug, Ronicol , which dilates the blood vessels. The chairman of the Dutch cycling federation, Piet van Dijk, said of Rome that "dope – whole cartloads – [were] used in such royal quantities." 
While in the late 1990’s a bottle of Androstendione, a prohormone that converts within the body to testosterone, was spotted by a reporter in the locker of then homerun record chasing Mark McGwire. Though McGwire soon retired the story of steroids in the Major League Baseball (MLB) was exposed. Further news of AAS exploded onto the scene when Ken Caminiti admitted using them in Sports Illustrated. Caminiti went on to estimate player usage in the MLB at fifty percent. In a book published during this same time homerun giant Jose Canseco also admitted to abusing AAS, and raised Caminiti’s estimate to 85% of MLB players. The league’s secret was out, and the scandals were about to begin. Jason Giambi and Barry Bonds were both implicated and investigated, later testifying before major courts regarding their AAS histories.
About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a component of the National Institutes of Health, . Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA supports most of the world’s research on the health aspects of drug use and addiction. The Institute carries out a large variety of programs to inform policy, improve practice, and advance addiction science. Fact sheets on the health effects of drugs and information on NIDA research and other activities can be found at , which is now compatible with your smartphone, iPad or tablet. To order publications in English or Spanish, call NIDA’s DrugPubs research dissemination center at 1-877-NIDA-NIH or 240-645-0228 (TDD) or email requests to drugpubs@ . Online ordering is available at . NIDA’s media guide can be found at /publications/media-guide/dear-journalist , and its easy-to-read website can be found at . You can follow NIDA on Twitter and Facebook .