Opium can cause short-term constipation that is often followed by diarrhea when the drug wears off. It will also cause confusion and may result in long periods of sleep followed by periods of insomnia. These short-term effects, though not deadly, can be persistent and can be troublesome. Many people like the sleepy effect that is caused by opium during short-term use but prolonged use of the drug can lead to tolerance and addiction . Opium use also has many other long term effects that should be considered before ever using the drug.
This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take modafinil or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to modafinil. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.
The areas of the brain where cannabinoid receptors are most prevalently located are consistent with the behavioral effects produced by cannabinoids. Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are very abundant are the basal ganglia , associated with movement control; the cerebellum , associated with body movement coordination; the hippocampus , associated with learning , memory, and stress control; the cerebral cortex , associated with higher cognitive functions; and the nucleus accumbens , regarded as the reward center of the brain. Other regions where cannabinoid receptors are moderately concentrated are the hypothalamus , which regulates homeostatic functions; the amygdala , associated with emotional responses and fears ; the spinal cord , associated with peripheral sensations like pain; the brain stem , associated with sleep , arousal , and motor control; and the nucleus of the solitary tract , associated with visceral sensations like nausea and vomiting .