Two major immune system genes under investigation are interleukin-12 subunit beta ( IL12B ) on chromosome 5q , which expresses interleukin-12B; and IL23R on chromosome 1p, which expresses the interleukin-23 receptor, and is involved in T cell differentiation. Interleukin-23 receptor and IL12B have both been strongly linked with psoriasis.  T cells are involved in the inflammatory process that leads to psoriasis.  These genes are on the pathway that upregulate tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor κB , two genes involved in inflammation.  Recently, the first gene directly linked to psoriasis has been identified. A rare mutation in the gene encoding for the CARD14 protein plus an environmental trigger was enough to cause plaque psoriasis (the most common form of psoriasis).