Extemporaneous compounding instructions for liquid formulation:
NOTE: The extemporaneous preparation of carbidopa; levodopa is not approved by the FDA.
NOTE: Use immediate-release tablets only to prepare. Do not use extended-release tablets or capsules or orally-disintegrating tablets. Do not use metal containers.
Mix 10 tablets of either carbidopa 10 mg/levodopa 100 mg or carbidopa 25 mg/levodopa 100 mg (equivalent to 1000 mg levodopa), one-half teaspoon ( ml) ascorbic acid crystals (approximately 2 g), and 1000 ml distilled water. Although distilled water is preferred, tap water may be used.
Rotate or shake container gently until tablets dissolve (no need to crush tablets).
Final concentration will be carbidopa mg/ml-levodopa 1 mg/ml (using carbidopa 10 mg/levodopa 100 mg tablets) or carbidopa mg/ml-levodopa 1 mg/ml (using carbidopa 25 mg/levodopa 100 mg tablets) and ascorbic acid 2 mg/ml.
Store in the refrigerator for 24—48 hours. Discard any unused solution after that time. The presence of black particles indicates that the levodopa has broken down; solutions containing these precipitates should be discarded.
Aripiprazole's mechanism of action is different from those of the other FDA-approved atypical antipsychotics (., clozapine , olanzapine , quetiapine , ziprasidone , and risperidone ).         Rather than acting as a pure antagonist of the dopamine D 2 receptor , aripiprazole shows functional selectivity at the D 2 receptor, acting as a silent antagonist of some subpopulations of D 2 receptors but as a high-efficacy partial agonist ( intrinsic activity = 75%) of other D 2 -receptor subpopulations.  It appears to show predominantly antagonist activity on postsynaptic D 2 receptors and partial agonist activity on presynaptic D 2 receptors.  Aripiprazole is also a partial agonist of the D 3 receptor .  In healthy human volunteers, D 2 and D 3 receptor occupancy levels are high, with average levels ranging between approximately 71% at 2 mg/day to approximately 96% at 40 mg/day.   Most atypical antipsychotics bind preferentially to extrastriatal receptors, but aripiprazole appears to be less preferential in this regard, as binding rates are high throughout the brain. 
In a single controlled study of twenty one patients, pramipexole was found to be highly effective in the treatment of bipolar depression. Treatment was initiated at mg three times a day and increased at a rate of mg three times a day to a limit of mg daily until the patients' condition satisfactorily responded to the medication or they could not tolerate the side effects. The final average dosage was ± mg daily. The incidence of hypomania in the treatment group was no greater than in the control group, although the size of the study is too small to determine risks for manic switch.