Adiponectin is the main hormone produced by mature not hypertrophic white adipocytes. It carries a powerful anti-inflammatory action, in addition to its role in modulating insulin sensitivity improving it in the liver, muscle and adipocytes [ 67 , 68 ]. Increase the oxidation of lipids in tissues by promoting weight loss, improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatetion, reduces the production of oxygen free radicals, has anti-inflammatory action: reduces the expression of adhesion proteins, the production of TNF-alpha and counteracts the effects on endothelial function, inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, inhibits the activity of metalloproteases wall, inhibits the effects of LDL (low density lipoprotein) oxidized on endothelial cells of the capillaries of the microcirculation content in 'adipose organ and systemic vascular network [ 69 , 70 ]. Plasma levels of adiponectin are reduced in obesity in the abdomen, in the male, in postmenopausal women, in high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease [ 71 - 77 ]. Adiponectin expression is decreased by TNF-a and IL-6, increased by PPARy agonists [ 78 ] (Figure 6 ). Adiponectin exerts a reduction in the proliferation of adipocyte cells, endothelial cells and tumor cells [ 79 , 80 ]. In addition to inhibit tumor growth and survival, adiponectin blocks angiogenesis by decreasing the expression of VEGF and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) and increasing the activity of p53, Bax and caspase (pro-apoptotic), with resulting in apoptosis of endothelial cells. Likewise, adiponectin was shown to reduce TNF-α induced effects on cell proliferation and migration [ 81 , 82 ]. In fact, it has been shown that the reduced concentrations of adiponectin observed in obesity may represent one of the mechanisms that connect obesity with the development and progression of cancer [ 83 - 86 ]. importantly, adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity-associated insulin resistance and cancer [ 87 ]. Insulin resistance is increased, with resultant elevation in insulin and bioavalible IGF1 levels, which enhance tumor cellular proliferation [ 88 , 89 ]. Low levels of adiponectin exert pro-inflammatory effects by means of the rise of the production of various proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6, favoring in this manner the onset of a permissive tumor microenvironment facilitating tumor promotion [ 90 - 92 ]. In several studies has been observed a negative correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of developing certain types of cancer such as colorectal, breast, pancreatic, liver and prostate cancer [ 93 - 96 ]. Low adiponectin levels are potentially associated with carcinogenesis [ 97 - 99 ]. The adiponectin protective effects in tumors also include the inhibition of leptin proliferative signaling and inducing cell apoptosis [ 100 - 101 ].
Anabolic steroids can cause the development of acne. However, the extent to which it is experienced can be due to a number of varying factors, with the particular steroids and exact dosages used being primary. The skin´s sebaceous glands have a particularly high affinity to Dihydrotestosterone, which is an androgen the body naturally produces from testosterone via the enzyme 5-alpha Reductase. Increased sebaceous gland activity promotes oily skin which can combine with bacteria and dead skin (normal wear and tear) eventually causing pores to become clogged more quickly than the body can cleanse them. This of course, is preventable by using only particular steroids, cleansing the skin regularly, and perhaps using a topical anti-androgen.