Adrenal corticosteroids definition

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

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The clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency is variable, depending on whether the onset is acute, leading to adrenal crisis, or chronic, with symptoms that are more insidious and vague. Therefore, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency depends upon a critical level of clinical suspicion. Adrenal crisis should be considered in any patient who presents with peripheral vascular collapse (vasodilatory shock), whether or not the patient is known to have adrenal insufficiency. Likewise, isolated corticotropin (ACTH) deficiency, although rare, should be considered in any patient who has unexplained severe hypoglycemia or hyponatremia. (See "Clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency in adults" .)

Adrenal corticosteroids definition

adrenal corticosteroids definition

The clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency is variable, depending on whether the onset is acute, leading to adrenal crisis, or chronic, with symptoms that are more insidious and vague. Therefore, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency depends upon a critical level of clinical suspicion. Adrenal crisis should be considered in any patient who presents with peripheral vascular collapse (vasodilatory shock), whether or not the patient is known to have adrenal insufficiency. Likewise, isolated corticotropin (ACTH) deficiency, although rare, should be considered in any patient who has unexplained severe hypoglycemia or hyponatremia. (See "Clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency in adults" .)

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